Rogue waves are extreme wave events that are known to occur in offshore as well as coastal areas. The highest wave measured in ocean has been about 35 m and as such, these waves can have catastrophic consequences on ships and offshore structures as well as occasionally on residential areas. Possible explanation for the formation of rogue waves in deep-water from the underlying wave dynamics only, is either the dispersive or nonlinear focusing.
These are also referred to as linear interference and modulation instability, respectively. Even though significant progress in experimental research has been achieved lately, the relevance of each of both mechanisms in the ocean remains a subject of debate in the oceanographic community. Here, we will summarize the latest scientific progress and discuss the perspectives as well as challenges in predicting extreme waves in natural environments.